Combining Theory, Models, and Observations
Big Data Oceanography
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I study the physics of the ocean, trying to understand what makes the water move. These are my main research topics.

Ocean Circulation and Mixing

An intricate network of currents circulates water through the global ocean. This circulation is important for Earth's climate because it transports heat, salt, and dissolved chemicals (such as carbon and oxygen) from the surface, where they are in contact with the atmosphere, to the deep abyss, where they can be isolated and stored for centuries or more. One of my main goals is to understand what controls the strength and structure of this global circulation.

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Mesoscale Dynamics

On scales of 10-500 km, the ocean is a twisted tangle of eddies, filaments, and fronts. The behavior of these turbulent flows is dynamically similar to weather systems of the atmosphere. I am fascinated by the complexity of the ocean mesoscale and have made it a central focus of my research. In particular, I would like to gain a better understanding of how energy flows through the mesoscale—how and where eddies extract potential energy from the background flow and how they dissipate their kinetic energy. Better understanding of the mesoscale energy cycle will lead to better representation of sub-grid mixing in climate models.

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Southern Ocean and Climate

The Southern Ocean surrounds Antarctica and connects the other three major ocean basins (Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian). It is the home to the world's strongest current, the Antartic Circumpolar Curent, and is full of mesoscale eddies. Because so much water comes together here, the Souhern Ocean is central to the global circulation, but the intense mesoscale turbulence (and a historical lack of observations), make it very challenging to understand the flow. Improved understanding of the drivers of Southern Ocean circulation will help improve future climate predictions and will also shed light on past climates, such as glacial cycles.

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Big Data Analysis

Scientific datasets are growing in size at an exponential rate, and oceanographic data is no exception. New high-resolution satellite observations and autonomous observing platforms are producing data faster than we can analyze it. Global eddy-resolving ocean models in particular can easily generate terabytes and petabytes of data. Our usual data analysis tools break down when confronted with these data volumes. I am actively engaged in developing open-source software tools to overcome this barrier and enable our community to efficiently process oceanographic Big Data.

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I am an assistant professor in the Columbia University Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences. These are the courses I am currently teaching.

Research Computing in Earth Science

An intensive and hands-on immersion in the application on modern research computing practices to data analysis and visualization, using datasets and methods drawn from across Earth Science.

Ocean Dynamics

Advanced topics in in ocean circulation theory

Introduction to Physical Oceanography

Physical properties of seawater, ocean water masses and their distribution, sea-air interaction, ocean general circulation, mixing processes. Co-taught with Arnold Gordon

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

Fundamental concepts in the dynamics of rotating stratified flows. Geostrophic and hydrostatic balances, potential vorticity, f and beta plane approximations, gravity and Rossby waves, geostrophic adjustment and quasigeostrophy, baroclinic and barotropic instabilities.

Python for Scientific Computing

An informal introduction to python, designed to take a novice from zero to fully functional in about eight hours. Topics include core python language, IPython notebooks, numpy, matplotlib, Basemap, pandas, and xarray.


Publish or perish. Google Scholar Profile


  1. Groeskamp, S., P. B. Barker, T. J. McDougall, R. P. Abernathey, and S. M. Griffies, 2018: A new algorithm to accurately calculate neutral tracer gradients and their impacts on vertical heat transport and water mass transformation. PDF (Submitted to JPO)
  2. Sinha, A., D. Balwada, N. Tarshish, and R. Abernathey, 2018: Modulation of Lateral Transport by Submesoscale Flows and Inertia Gravity Waves. PDF (In revision at JAMES)
  3. Busecke, J., and R. P. Abernathey, 2018: Ocean Mesoscale Mixing linked to Climate Variability. PDF (Accepted to Science Advances)

In Press / Published

  1. Abernathey, R., J. Marshall, E. Shuckburgh, and M. Mazloff, 2010: Enhancement of Mesoscale Eddy Stirring at Steering Levels in the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 170–185, doi:10.1175/2009JPO4201.1. PDFonline
  2. Abernathey, R., J. Marshall, and D. Ferreira, 2011: The Dependence of Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning on Wind Stress. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 2261–2278, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-11-023.1. PDFonline
  3. Hill, C., D. Ferreira, J.-M. Campin, J. Marshall, R. Abernathey, and N. Barrier, 2012: Controlling Spurious Diapycnal Mixing in Eddy-Resolving Height-Coordinate Ocean Models: Insights from Virtual Deliberate Tracer Release Experiments. Ocean Modelling, 45-46, 14–26, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.12.001. PDFonline
  4. Abernathey, R., and J. C. Marshall, 2013: Global surface eddy diffusivities derived from satellite altimetry. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 901–916, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20066. PDFonline
  5. Abernathey, R., D. Ferreira, and A. Klocker, 2013: Diagnostics of isopycnal mixing in a circumpolar channel. Ocean Modelling, 72, 1–16, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.07.004. PDFonline
  6. Gnanadesikan, A., R. Abernathey, and M.-A. Pradal, 2014: Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth System Models. Ocean Science Discussions, 11, 2533–2567, doi:10.5194/osd-11-2533-201. PDFonline
  7. Abernathey, R. P., and P. Cessi, 2014: Topographic Enhancement of Eddy Efficiency in Baroclinic Equilibration. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 2107–2126, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-14-0014.1. PDFonline
  8. Klocker, A., and R. Abernathey, 2014: Global Patterns of Mesoscale Eddy Properties and Diffusivities. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 1030–1047, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0159.1. PDFonline
  9. Abernathey, R., and D. Ferreira, 2015: Southern Ocean isopycnal mixing and ventilation changes driven by winds. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 10,357–310,365, doi:10.1002/2015GL066238. PDFonline
  10. Abernathey, R. P., and C. Wortham, 2015: Phase speed cross spectra of eddy heat fluxes in the Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 1285–1301, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-14-0160.1. PDFonline
  11. Gnanadesikan, A., M.-A. Pradal, and R. Abernathey, 2015: Isopycnal mixing by mesoscale eddies significantly impacts oceanic anthropogenic carbon uptake. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 4249–4255, doi:10.1002/2015GL064100. PDFonline (2015GL064100)
  12. Solomon, A., L. M. Polvani, K. L. Smith, and R. Abernathey, 2015: The impact of ozone depleting substances on the circulation, temperature and salinity of the Southern Ocean: An attribution study with CESM1 (WACCM). Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 5547—5555, doi:10.1002/2015GL064744. PDFonline
  13. Sinha, A., and R. Abernathey, 2016: Timescales of Southern Ocean Eddy Equilibration. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 46, 2785–2805, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-16-0041.1. PDFonline
  14. Abernathey, R., I. Cerovečki, P. R. Holland, E. Newsom, M. Mazloff, and L. D. Talley, 2016: Southern Ocean Water Mass Transformation Driven by Sea Ice. Nature Geoscience, 9, 596–601, doi:10.1038/ngeo2749. PDFonline
  15. Wang, L., M. F. Jansen, and R. P. Abernathey, 2016: Eddy phase speeds in a two-layer model of quasigeostrophic baroclinic turbulence with applications to ocean observations. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46, 1963–1985, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0192.1. PDFonline
  16. Newsom, E., C. Bitz, F. Bryan, R. P. Abernathey, and P. Gent, 2016: Southern Ocean Deep Circulation and Heat Uptake in a High-Resolution Climate Model. Journal of Climate, 29, 2597–2619, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0513.1. PDFonline
  17. Bishop, S. P., P. R. Gent, F. O. Bryan, A. F. Thompson, M. C. Long, and R. P. Abernathey, 2016: Southern Ocean Overturning Compensation in an Eddy-Resolving Climate Simulation. Journal of Climate, 46, 1575–1592, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0177.1. PDFonline
  18. Groeskamp, S., R. P. Abernathey, and A. Klocker, 2016: Water Mass Transformation by Cabbeling and Thermobaricity. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2016GL070860. PDFonline (2016GL070860)
  19. Gnanadesikan, A., A. Russell, M.-A. Pradal, and R. Abernathey, 2017: Impact of Lateral Mixing in the Ocean on El Nino in a Suite of Fully Coupled Climate Models. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:10.1002/2017MS000917. PDFonline
  20. Uchida, T., R. P. Abernathey, and K. S. Smith, 2017: Seasonality in Ocean Mesoscale Turbulence in a High Resolution Climate Model. Ocean Modelling, 118, 41–58, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2017.08.006. PDFonline
  21. Busecke, J., R. P. Abernathey, and A. L. Gordon, 2017: Lateral Eddy Mixing in the subtropical salinity maxima of the global Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., doi:10.1175/JPO-D-16-0215.1. PDFonline
  22. Balwada, D., K. S. Smith, and R. Abernathey, 2018: Submesoscale Vertical Velocities Enhance Tracer Subduction in an Idealized Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2018GL079244. PDFonline
  23. Tesdal, J.-E., R. P. Abernathey, J. I. Goes, A. L. Gordon, and T. W. N. Haine, 2018: Salinity Trends within the Upper Layers of the Subpolar North Atlantic. Journal of Climate, 31, 2675–2698, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0532.1. PDFonline
  24. Tarshish, N., R. Abernathey, C. Zhang, C. O. Dufour, I. Frenger, and S. M. Griffies, 2018: Identifying Lagrangian coherent vortices in a mesoscale ocean model. Ocean Modelling, 130, 15–28, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2018.07.001. PDFonline
  25. Sebille, E. van, and others, 2018: Lagrangian ocean analysis: fundamentals and practices. Ocean Modelling, 121, 49–75, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2017.11.008. PDFonline
  26. Abernathey, R., and G. Haller, 2018: Transport by Lagrangian Vortices in the Eastern Pacific. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 48, 667–685, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-17-0102.1. PDFonline
  27. Tamsitt, V., R. P. Abernathey, M. R. Mazloff, J. Wang, and L. D. Talley, 2018: Transformation of Deep Water Masses Along Lagrangian Upwelling Pathways in the Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 1994–2017, doi:10.1002/2017JC013409. PDFonline


Software is the machinery for transforming raw data and ideas into scientific results.

The scientific community is becoming increasingly aware that open access to research code is an essential ingredient for scientific reproducibility and progress. I strive to publish all my resesarch code in online repositories, and I contribute to several open source projects. Python is my weapon of choice.

The projects listed at right represent my reasonably well organized, well documented software packages suitable for general use. In addition, I have lots more code associated with specific papers and research projects available on my github and bitbucket sites.

  •   xgcm

    A python package for the analysis of finite-volume ocean general circulation model output. Builds on xarray and dask projets to provide parallel, out-of-core scalability.

  •   xmitgcm

    A python package for reading MITgcm binary MDS files into xarray data structures.

  •   xarray

    A community-driven open source project to which I contribute. Xarray provides data structres and computational methods for working with labeled multidimensional numerical array data.

  •   xrft

    Fourier transforms on xarray data structures.

  •   pyqg

    A python quasigeostrophic model for turbulence simulations. Well documented and easy to use—ideal for students, but fast enough for real research.


Our human brains excell at identifying patterns from moving images. Video is an essential tool for my science.
See all of my videos on my Vimeo page.

Research Group

These are the people who make the science.

Ryan Abernathey

Associate Professor

Spencer Jones


Mu Xu


Anirban Sinha

Ph.D. Student

Takaya Uchida

Ph.D. Student

Shanice Bailey

Ph.D. Student

Tongya Liu

Visiting Student

Other Collaborators

John Marshall
  MIT (Ryan's Ph.D. advisor)
Paola Cessi
  SIO (Ryan's posdtoc advisor)
David Ferreira
  University of Reading
Matt Mazloff
Chris Hill
Andreas Klocker
  University of Tasmania
Anand Gnanadesikan
  Johns Hopkins
Marie-Aude Pradal
  Johns Hopkins
Cimarron Wortham
  University of Washington
Lorenzo Polvani
Ari Solomon
Karen Smith
Emily Newsom
  University of Washington
Cecilia Bitz
  University of Washington
Frank Bryan
Peter Gent
Anirban Sinha
Stuart Bishop
  North Carolina State University
Andrew Thompson
Lei Wang
  University of Chicago
Malte Jansen
  Univerity of Chicago
Ivana Cerovecki
  Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Lynne Talley
  Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Paul Holland
  British Antarctic Survey